Effect of individual remodeling targets on CaT and AP characteristics in cAF.

(A) normal sinus rhythm (nSR). (B) chronic atrial fibrillation (cAF: all). (C–F) four remodeled cellular components separately (L-type Ca2+ current, ICaL; inward rectified K+ current, IK1; Na+/Ca2+ exchanger current, INCX; and increased cell volume, dilation), respectively. Columns from left to right: action potential (AP), Ca2+ transient (CaT) averaged over cell volume, and spatiotemporal presentation of CaT (x =  distance from sarcolemma). Colour scale for right column: 0–1.5 µM corresponds to dark blue – dark red (similar to Figure 1 F&G). All results are obtained at BCL = 1000 ms.



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