Effect of EPIT on the induction of peanut-induced allergic esophagus inflammation established by histological and RT-qPCR analyses Microscopic analysis of eosinophils in the esophagus at 40× (A–C) and 100× high-powered fields (D–F).

Most eosinophils (arrows) are located in the lamina propia, submucosa, and epithelial layer of the sham group and to a lesser extent of the EPIT group. A difference in the thickness of epithelium is observed between naive/EPIT and sham. Analysis of (G) chorion inflammation, (H) acanthosis, (I) measurement of eosinophil infiltration in the esophagus and in 40× high-powered fields. Grading for chorion inflammation is as follows: 0 = nothing, 1 = slight diffuse infiltration, 2 = perivascular area. Grading for acanthosis is as follows: 0 = nothing, 1 = layer with more than 4 cells, 2 = layer with more than 6 cells. The epithelium thickness was expressed as mean (µm) ±SD. For eosinophils, the results are expressed as number of eosinophils per mm2 (means ± SD). Cytokine mRNA from esophagus segments collected 24 h after stopping peanut diet was assayed by RT-qPCR. Results are presented as mRNA expression of naive, Sham or EPIT animals. The relative levels of gene expression were calculated by reference to the mRNA levels of SDHA and β-actin in each sample. (J) eotaxin, (K) IL-5, (L) IL-13, (M) Foxp3, (N)GATA-3, (O) Tbet. * p<0.05, ** p<0.01.