Detection and evaluation of observations suspected to be false (emergence II)

<p>Emergence was also expressed as observations suspected to be false. Such detection was elicited by dimensionless indicators (hypothetical indices derived from products or ratios of leukocyte data, which assess numerous relationships, e.g., <i>BAS</i>, <i>AM</i>, <i>BAP</i>). Dimensionless indicators detected two subsets of culture-negative data (<b>A</b>). Because culture-negative data subsets were separated by the culture-positive cluster, one subset was suspected to be false-negative (FN culture results, <b>B</b>). A similar contrast led to suspect that one culture-positive observation was a false-positive (FP): it was located within the culture-negative cluster but far from the location of culture-positives (<b>B</b>). Such inferences did not depend on the set of dimensionless indicators analyzed or whether current or prior information was considered: when a separate set of indicators was analyzed, it showed similar patterns (<b>C</b>) and, when only current information was considered, patterns remained, differing only in the number of FNs observed, which increased (red polygon, <b>D</b>).</p>