Classification and regression tree with leave-one-out cross-validation for cancer-free lung tissue, adenocarcinoma (AdCa), squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), and small cell cancer of the lung (SCLC).

using immunohistochemical scores of 22 candidate proteins in 146 tissue samples from uranium miners. Staining of mucin 1 (MUC1) in the membrane, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (HIF1A) in the cytoplasm, and NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1) in the nucleus resulted in a three-protein classifier with a failure rate of 11.0%.