CXCR4 and SDF-1 mRNA in sham-operated and subtotally nephrectomized (SNx) rats.

CXCR4 expression is increased in the kidneys of SNx rats (A), whereas SDF-1 is reduced (B). The kidneys of SNx rats also demonstrated an upregulation of the pro-fibrotic growth factor, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) (C). In cultured NRK-49F renal fibroblasts, recombinant TGF-β downregulated SDF-1 mRNA, with this effect being attenuated by HDAC inhibition with vorinostat (D). *p<0.001 vs. sham, p<0.05 vs. sham, p<0.01 vs. sham, §p<0.001 vs. control, p<0.001 vs. TGF-β.