Birth outcomes, and children’s physical characteristics, reproductive hormone levels and sexual characteristics at eight years of age.

Data are presented as mean±SD for continuous variables and n (%) for categorical ones.

Sex differences were compared by using a two-sample t-test, if data were normally distributed, or a Mann-Whitney U-test, if data were not normally distributed, for continuous variables, and a Pearson Chi-square test for categorical variables.

* P<0.00625 (0.05/8) indicates a significant difference.

a

Reference values: Estradiol, 0.5–1.1 ng/dL for male, 0.5–2.0 ng/dL for female; Follicle-stimulating hormone, 0.26–3.0 mIU/mL for male, 1.0–4.2 mIU/mL for female; Free testosterone, 0.4–0.9 pg/mL for male and female; Progesterone, <0.1–0.33 ng/mL for male and female; Total testosterone, <0.03–0.1 ng/mL for male, <0.03–0.1 ng/mL for female.

(Table 710–6. In Behrman, Kliegman, Jenson, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Philadelphia: Saunders; 17th edition, 2003:2406–2411).

Birth outcomes, and children’s physical characteristics, reproductive hormone levels and sexual characteristics at eight years of age.