Association between endothelial function markers and AF.
A. Von Willebrand factor and AF; B. Soluble thrombomodulin and AF. Forest plots of SMD and overall SMD with 95% CI between AF cases and controls. Black diamonds indicate the SMD, with the size of the square inversely proportional to its variance, and horizontal lines represent the 95% CI. The pooled results are indicated by the black hollow diamond. AF, atrial fibrillation; vWf, von Willebrand factor; sTM, soluble thrombomodulin; PAF, paroxysmal AF; PeAF, persistent AF; PtAF, permanent AF; CAF, chronic AF; aAF, acute AF; SMD, standardized mean difference.