Association between coagulation activation markers and AF.
A. D-dimer and AF; B. fibrinogen and AF; C. Thrombin-antithrombin and AF; D. Prothrombin fragment 1+2 and AF; E. Antithrombin- III and AF. Forest plots of SMD and overall SMD with 95% CI between AF cases and controls. Black diamonds indicate the SMD, with the size of the square inversely proportional to its variance, and horizontal lines represent the 95% CI. The pooled results are indicated by the black hollow diamond. AF, atrial fibrillation; TAT, thrombin-antithrombin; F1+2, prothrombin fragment 1+2; AT- III, antithrombin- III; PAF, paroxysmal AF; PeAF, persistent AF; PtAF, permanent AF; CAF, chronic AF; aAF, acute AF; SMD, standardized mean difference.