Activation of PPARß increased the peroxisome number and metabolic function in MC3T3-E1 cells.

(A) Comparative analysis of the mRNA levels (qRT-PCR) of Pparɑ, Pparß and Pparɣin MC3T3-E1 cells. (B) MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with the six PPAR-modulating drugs. PPRE-activity was measured using the Dual Luciferase Reporter Gene Assay. Significant differences in comparison to untreated controls were given as *p≤0.05; **p≤0.01 and ***p≤0.001 using ANOVA-1 followed by post-hoc Scheffé-test. (C-H) Treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with the PPARß agonist GW0742 (D, G) increased the number of peroxisomes as detected by immunofluorescence stainings for PEX14 (C-E) and PEX13 (F-H) in comparison to cells treated with vehicle (control; C, F) and the PPARß antagonist GSK0660 (E, H). G. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis of genes regulating peroxisome number (Pex11) as well as peroxisome biogenesis (Pex13) and metabolic function (Cat, Acox1) after treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with GW0742.