Abnormal mitochondrial ultrastructure in mice fed a choline restricted, very high fat, low protein, very low carbohydrate diet.
(A) Transmission electron micrograph of hepatocytes from mice maintained for 6 weeks on standard chow reveals normal mitochondrial structure. Arrows, mitochondria. (B) Higher power image of mitochondria from mice maintained on standard chow, demonstrating normal cristae. (C) Hepatocyte mitochondria from livers of mice maintained on VLP/C+ exhibited normal cristae folding and evident double membranes. Sparse microvesicular lipid droplets were also evident (white circular structure). Arrows, mitochondria; arrowhead; autophagosome. (D) Higher power image of hepatocyte mitochondria from mice maintained on VLP/C+, showing morphology of the cristae. (E) VLP/C- diet induces massive hepatocyte steatosis (note large circular pale fat droplets), and swollen mitochondria with disorganized and dilated cristae. Hepatocyte nucleus is on the right side of the image. Arrows, mitochondria. (F) Higher power image of hepatocyte mitochondria from mice maintained on VLP/C-, with dilated cristae (arrow) and an autophagosome (arrowhead). (G) High power image of hepatocyte mitochondria from mice maintained on VLP/C-, with dilated cristae (arrows). Scale bars, 500 nm (A–F), 100 nm (G).