VMMC cost-effectiveness and program cost with and without increasing unit cost with client age.

(a) discounted cost per HIV infection averted, 2014–2028, scenario 1: unit costs the same across all age groups; (b) discounted total cost of VMMC program, 2014–2028, scenario 1: unit costs the same across all age groups; (c) discounted cost per HIV infection averted, 2014–2028, scenario 2: increasing unit cost with increasing client age; (d) discounted total cost of VMMC program, 2014–2028, scenario 2: increasing unit cost with increasing client age. Each bar represents scale-up of VMMC among the indicated age group, compared with a reference case in which male circumcision prevalence is maintained at base levels from before the initiation of the VMMC program. Error bars represent uncertainty bounds as described in [11].