The effectiveness of an auditory temporal training program in children who present voiceless/voiced-based orthographic errors
Studies on children’s written production of the Brazilian Portuguese have shown that one of the most frequent phonological-based orthographic errors is the one related to voiceless/voiced phonemes. Children who make this type of error may have auditory temporal processing disorders, which can harm the perception of phonemes with similar characteristics.
Verify the effectiveness of an auditory temporal training program based on activities adapted from the software Fast ForWord in the auditory temporal processing, i.e. the temporal ordering skill, and in reducing voiceless/voiced-based orthographic errors and the frequency of occurrence of these errors in the written production of the children.
Twenty-five children participated on this study. They were divided in two groups: experimental group consisting of 16 participants, who engaged in the auditory temporal training activities; and a placebo group consisting of nine participants, who engaged in passive visual activities. The behavioral measures applied in the pre-training evaluation, post-training and placebo evaluations were: i) auditory skill of temporal ordering by the Pitch Pattern Sequence Test; and ii) analysis of the amount of voiceless/voiced-based orthographic errors and the frequency of occurrence of these errors by the use of dictation.
No statistically significant differences were found concerning the placebo group in the pre-training and post-training evaluations, in all evaluation measures. However, statistically significant differences were found in the pre-training and post-training evaluations for the pitch pattern sequence test concerning the experimental group. These differences were specifically related to a reduction of the errors regarding fricative graphemes, and the frequency of occurrence of plosive and fricative graphemes.
The auditory temporal training program was effective in improving the temporal ordering skill and reducing errors in the writing of children who made voiceless/voiced-based orthographic errors.