Simulated population fitness under different levels of pleiotropy, i.e. the number of phenotypes controlled by a single QTL (horizontal axis).
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Phenotypes start from an initial value 0 and selection acts to move them towards three different optima. Shown are medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) from 300 simulation. The fitness estimates were normalized in relation to the non-pleiotropic class (median = 0, IQR = 1).