Simulated population dynamics of epithelial cells, immune effectors and bacteria in chlamydia infections.

<p>In A, the immune cell proliferation is rapid, which leads to an acute infection. In B and C, immune cells do not proliferate fast enough to clear the bacteria and the acute phase is followed by oscillations and the establishment of a chronic phase (plateau of EB density). The infection is lytic reducing the thickness of the epithelium (A, B and C) but only chronic infections manage to infect the lower layers (B and C). Parameter values are default (<a href="" target="_blank">Table 3</a> and literature values in <a href="" target="_blank">Table 1</a>) except in A where <i>β</i><sub><i>b</i></sub> = 8.0 × 10<sup>−7</sup> cell<sup>−1</sup>⋅ EB<sup>−1</sup>⋅ day<sup>−1</sup>, <i>β</i><sub><i>p</i></sub> = 4.0 × 10<sup>−6</sup> cell<sup>−1</sup>⋅ EB<sup>−1</sup>⋅ day<sup>−1</sup>, <i>β</i><sub><i>u</i></sub> = 2.0 × 10<sup>−5</sup> cell<sup>−1</sup>⋅ EB<sup>−1</sup>⋅ day<sup>−1</sup>, and <i>φ</i> = 0.0015 day<sup>−1</sup>. In C, all four epithelial protective measures happen together, i.e. <i>ζ</i><sub><i>u</i></sub>, <i>ρ</i><sub><i>b</i></sub>, <i>μ</i>, and <i>ν</i> all rise logistically to a threshold above default after infection to mimic the protective epithelial response (see section A.3 <a href="" target="_blank">S1 Text</a>, eqn 7a with <i>θ</i> = 1). Thresholds used in C: , , <i>μ</i><sub><i>max</i></sub> = 0.9 cell<sup>−1</sup>⋅ day<sup>−1</sup>, and <i>ν</i><sub><i>max</i></sub> = 0.8 day<sup>−1</sup>.</p>