Schematic figure illustrating the signaling pathway activation with mechanical ventilation.

Bleomycin-induced augmentation of mechanical stretch-mediated cytokine production and EMT were attenuated by the administration of trichostatin A and with Akt heterozygous knockout. Akt+/- = Akt-deficient mice; EMT = epithelial-mesenchymal transition; HDAC = histone deacetylase; MMP-9 = matrix metalloproteinase-9; PAI-1 = plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; TSA = trichostatin A.