Raloxifene inhibits osteoclastic gene expression in vitro.

Osteoclast progenitors from wild-type mice were cultured with or without raloxifene (RAL, 1μM) in the presence or absence of M-CSF 50ng/ml (M) and RANKL 25ng/ml (R). Osteoclast formation was evaluated by TRAP staining (A), by the number of multi-nuclear TRAP-positive cells (B) and by Cathepsin K, NFATc1, DC-STAMP expression as analyzed by realtime PCR (C). Data represent mean Cathepsin K, NFATc1 or DC-STAMP expression relative to β-actin ± SD (n = 3). Bar = 100 μm. *P<0.05; **P<0.01; NS, not significant (unpaired two-tailed Student’s t-test). Representative data of at least three independent experiments are shown.