Proposed model of how P. gingivalis gingipains send bacterial virulence factors through the gingival epithelium.

P. gingivalis gingipains degrade JAM1, which increases the permeability of gingival epithelium to gingipains and other factors. Subsequently, gingipains are transferred to the deeper epithelium to further degrade JAM1, which allows LPS and PGN to penetrate the gingival epithelium and reach subepithelial tissues. Finally, gingipains, LPS, and PGN induce inflammation in gingival tissues.