Mitochondrial DNA, protein, and gene expression.

Content of mtDNA (A) was measured by qPCR using targeted primers against regions encoding for ATP synthase Fo subunit 6 (Atp6), Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (CytoxII), and NADH dehydrogenase 5 (Nd5). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM for 6 animals in each genotype and are normalized for the high-copy number nuclear gene, 18S rRNA. Mitochondrial protein content (B) was measured by probing for proteins of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC). Genes (C) and proteins (D) regulating mitochondrial fission, including DRP1 and FIS1 were measured by qPCR using gene-specific primers and by Western blotting, respectively. For protein gels, cropped images are presented for clarity. Full length blots are presented in S1 Fig. Data are representative of 4–6 animals per genotype and expressed as mean ± SEM; *p<0.05 vs. WT.