Metformin inhibits grade 1 endometrial cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration, and induces apoptosis.

A. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay measured Ishikawa cell proliferation with increasing concentrations of metformin after 24h or 48h, in high-glucose media. B. Proportion of Ishikawa cells surviving (compared to control) after treatment with 10 mM or 20 mM of metformin. C. Cell migration assay, with Ishikawa cells subjected to control, 10 mM, or 20 mM metformin for 24h. Control (0h) is also shown. D. Quantification of % wound closure; the 10 mM and 20 mM treatment groups were each significantly different than control (p<0.05; noted with asterisk [*]). E. Western blot of apoptosis-related protein expression in Ishikawa cells after treatment with control, 10 mM, or 20 mM for 48h.