Memory improvement after 30 minutes.

In a control experiment we used an identical procedure as the main experiment, however instead of a delay of 24h between the two sessions of the finger-tapping task, memory was tested already after 30 minutes. We did not observe a protective effect of the piano experience on consolidation: old participants showed a significant (F1,56 = 28.51, p < .00001) reduction in offline improvement independent whether they were piano players or not. The error bars denote the standard error of the mean.