MDA-5 expression.

Immunolocalization of MDA-5 in peripheral lung sections from never smokers (A) and very severe COPD patients (B). (C) Immunostaining score of respiratory epithelium was significantly increased in non-COPD patients, especially in apical compartment, when compared with COPD patients. (D) mRNA showed a similar expression pattern. The upper bar indicates the differences between non-COPD patients and COPD patients.