GSA power simulation over four different moderately sparse configurations of gene signal density.

Simulated power of MAGMA, GSEA, SKAT, GHC, and GBJ (all self-contained versions) with random sets of ten genes selected from 10,000 total genes. From the ten genes in the set, a genes are selected to hold b causal SNPs each. The four subfigures correspond to (A) a = 1, b = 4, (B) a = 4, b = 1, (C) a = 4, b = 2, (D) a = 8, b = 1. The effect size is given on the x-axis. We perform 100 simulations at each parameter setting and test at α = 0.01. The relative power of each test is affected by both the signal configuration and signal sparsity.