GE inhibited the migration and invasion of EJ cells through diminished MMP-9 activity by suppressing binding activity of transcription factor AP-1, Sp-1, and NF-κB.

(A) Changes of migratory potential were assessed by scratch wound-healing assays. The cells were pre-treated with mitocycin C (5 μg/ml) for 2 h. The surface area of migrating cells was photographed by a phase contrast microscope. The recovery rate was measured as fold changes compared with the control. (B) Invasive capacity was measured using Matrigel®-coated transwell plates in GE-treated EJ cells. The cells were incubated with mitocycin C (5 μg/ml) for 2 h before the invasion assays. Cellular images were taken by a phase contrast microscope. The amount of invading cells was presented as a fold change relative to the control. (C) Gelatinase activity of MMP-2 and -9 were assessed by different concentrations of GE using zymography. Bar graph was presented as a fold change contrasted with the control. (D) Binding activity of transcription factor AP-1, Sp-1, and NF-κB, was measured by EMSA in GE-treated EJ cells. Bar graph was presented as a fold change compared with the control. Results in bar graphs are represented as mean ± SE from three different triplicate experiments. *P<0.05 compared with the control.