Flow of participants through the DRCT.

Baseline characteristics were similar among the three study groups (Table 1). There were slightly more female (52.9%) than male participants. The mean (SD) age at which participants finished full-time education was 19.4 (4.4) y and most were employed full-time (68.0%). Overall, 10.6% were current smokers, and 26.8% consumed more than 11 units of alcohol per wk. Few participants were prescribed steroid or antihypertensive medication (5.8%) or had a positive family history for diabetes (23.0%). On average, participants were overweight (mean [SD] body mass index of 26.1 [4.2] kg/m2), but their HbA1c level was in the normal range (mean [SD] of 36.3 [4.4] mmol/mol).