Example time-series graphs of bird captures at Manomet for four different species from four different trend clusters.

Grey lines indicate raw capture data, blue lines indicate state-space estimates of actual migratory cohort size, and the shaded area is the 95% confidence interval around the state-space model estimate. Some species are unambiguously increasing or declining, while others show more complicated patterns. Lincoln’s Sparrow data is from spring migration, all others are from fall.