Evolution of life form (perennial/annual) in Rubieae.

Ancestral character states reconstructed over a set of posterior trees using maximum parsimony (left pie charts) and Bayesian inference (right pie charts) are shown on a simplified majority rule consensus tree; therefore, terminal pie charts often show reconstructed character states at the crown node of small terminal clades (indicated by names in normal print) and only rarely the character states of a single accession (indicated by names in italics). Abbreviations of major clades: A, Asperula Clade; AC, Asperula-Cruciata Clade; AS, Asperula-Sherardia Clade; C, Cymogalia Clade; G, Galiinae Clade; Ga, Galium Clade; K, Kelloggiinae Clade; R, Rubiinae Clade.