Errors of the fits to Gabor functions (left), and evolution of the TICA goal function (right).

In the left plot, features were sorted according to the normalized MAE of the fit to a Gabor function. Different visual angles and resolutions lead to topographies of different size (different number of features). The values of the goal functions during the training of TICA [38] were normalized by the initial value in each case. Curves in red and green correspond to full resolution or to spatially undersampled datasets respectively. Note that normalized MAE is small for most of the features in every dataset. For example more than 95% of the features have a normalized error below 12.5%. Note also that the goal curves in red and green achieve a plateau after 2000 iterations indicating a stable result.