Effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF).

ASCs or ASCs derived from indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO)-knockout (KO) mice significantly decreased AHR (A, C) and the number of total inflammatory cells and eosinophils (B, D) in wild-type (WT) and IDO-KO asthmatic mice. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of four independent experiments performed in triplicate. * p<0.05, *** p≤0.001.