Dendrogram of chemical distances among different groups of invasive queens (Euclidean distances, Ward’s method).

The abbreviations are as follows: older, field-collected queens (OLM) (n = 17), two-week-old laying mated queens (LM2) (n = 10), two-week-old laying virgin queens (LV2) (n = 9), non-laying mated queens (NLM) (n = 12), 4-day-old non-laying virgin queens (NLV4) (n = 15), and 24-hour-old non-laying virgin queens (NLV24) (n = 13).