DCA increases hepatic ER stress signaling and decreases hepatic insulin signaling.

Phosphorylated to total IRE (A) and spliced XBP1 (sXBP1) expression normalized to tubulin (B). BiP (C) and TNFα (D) expression normalized to tubulin and phosphorylated to total Akt expression (E). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM, *P<0.05, **P<0.01 by Student’s t-test, n = 6 per group.