Blocking TLR4 and RAGE reduces the bone resorption capacity of S100A12-induced osteoclasts.

Osteoclasts were generated on a bone resorption assay plate with or without S100A12 (1,000 ng/ml), and the additional administration of VIPER (30 μM) and/or an anti-RAGE antibody (10 μg/ml). The resorption lacunae were examined by microscopy after 16 days of culture. (A) The percentage of the resorbed area was quantified and expressed as the mean and SD of 3 independent experiments. * = p < 0.05; *** = p < 0.001. (B) Representative images of resorption pit formation (original magnification × 200).