Assessment of factors affecting diabetes management in the City Changing Diabetes (CCD) study in Tianjin

<div><p>Objective</p><p>This study aimed to identify the local levels of vulnerability among patients with Type-II diabetes (T2DM) in Tianjin. The study was aimed at curbing the rise of T2DM in cities.</p><p>Methods</p><p>229 participants living with T2DM were purposively sampled from hospitals in Tianjin. Collected data were coded and analysed following well-established thematic analysis principles.</p><p>Results</p><p>Twelve themes involving 29 factors were associated with diabetes patients’ vulnerability: 1. Financial constraints (Low Income, Unemployment, No Medical Insurance/Low ratio reimbursement); 2. Severity of disease (Appearance of symptoms, complications, co-morbidities, high BMI, poor disease control); 3. Health literacy (No/Low/Wrong knowledge of health literacy); 4. Health beliefs (Perceived diabetes indifferently, Passively Acquire Health Knowledge, Distrust of primary health services); 5. Medical environment (Needs not met by Medical Services); 6. Life restrictions (Daily Life, Occupational Restriction); 7. Lifestyle change (Adhering to traditional or unhealthy diet, Lack of exercise, Low-quality sleep); 8. Time poverty (Healthcare-seeking behaviours were limited by work, Healthcare-seeking behaviours were limited by family issues); 9. Mental Condition (Negative emotions towards diabetes, Negative emotions towards life); 10. Levels of Support (Lack of community support, Lack of support from Friends and Family, Lack of Social Support); 11. Social integration (Low Degree of Integration, Belief in Suffering Alone); 12. Experience of transitions (Diet, Dwelling Environment).</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>Based on our findings, specific interventions targeting individual patients, family, community and society are needed to improve diabetes control, as well as patients’ mental health care and general living conditions.</p></div>