Arenas, place field centers, and barcodes.

Top row: the five types of arenas we considered. Each arena has dimensions 200 cm × 200 cm. Blue dots represent centers of place fields. Orange squares mark positions of circular obstacles of radius 25 cm. Bottom row: Persistence barcodes obtained from running simulations on the five different arenas with mean firing rate 20 Hz, place field size 16 cm, and τ = 2000. Notice that the number of long bars in each barcode is equal to the number of obstacles in the corresponding arena.