Activation of the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways by RVA outer capsid surface proteins.

Serum-starved MA104 cells were incubated with recombinant GST-fused VP8* or his-tagged VP5* or VP7 proteins of the strains DS-1 (A) and NCDV (B) at 10 μg/ml for the indicated time points. The cell lysates were subjected to Western blot analysis for the detection of pPI3K, pAkt, pERK, PI3K, Akt, and ERK using the relevant antibodies. GAPDH was used as a loading control. The intensity of pPI3K, pAkt, and pERK relative to GAPDH was determined by densitometric analysis and is indicated above each lane.